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Yr 12 CHEMISTRY - Units 3 and 4

The year 12 course covers units three and four of the QCAA Chemistry syllabus. Units one and two are covered in year 11 Chemistry. Year 12 is summative and covers the general topics of redox, acids/bases, equilibrium, and organic Chemistry.

There are four summative assessment items in year 12. The two assessment items in Unit 3 are a Data Test (10%) and Student Experiment (20%). The two assessment items in Unit 4 are a Student Research Investigation (20%) and external Examination (50%). There is approximately one assessment item per term, although the yr 12 course is not aligned with school terms.


Unit 3 Learning Goals and Success Criteria

Redox Reactions Unit 3 Topic 2 (Yr 11 Week 34,35 6 lessons)

Introduction to REDOX notes - a one pager with some intro notes. Edited from CK-12

Introduction to REDOX Practice - Some questions on this topic. From CK-12

SC2 - will be covered by class discussion and some notes from the board. It is very much about applying an understanding of electronegativity to oxidation and reduction. This application of your understanding will play a part to "make predictions" in SC6.

NOTE: The use of the terms Oxidation number and Oxidation state are used formally in SC5 for this unit. In many texts they are interchangable, however it is worth kowing the difference. Read the second paragraph of this article to recognise the difference. This will be important in answering questions (in the exam) using the correct format.

Assigning Oxidation statess notes

Assigning Oxidation state practice - Some questions on this topic

Revision to this point. A one pager, should not be hard. Use to diagose any difficulty you are having.

Assigning Oxidation states - 13.5 mins, by Tyler DeWitt. Slow, methodical, great.

Oxidising and Reducing Agents - 15 mins, by Tyler DeWitt. Watch and learn

Balancing REDOX 1/2 Rn method - balancing by the half-reaction method, acidic environment only. Mainly an example of how to do it.

Balancing REDOX reactions in acidic solutions - 15 mins, by Tyler DeWitt. Click here to see him do a practice problem.

Balancing REDOX practice - a CK-12 Sheet with some practice questions.

Review for this unit. From CK-12. 25 Q's.

Electrochemical cells Unit 3 Topic 2 (Yr 11 Week 36 1 lesson)

NOTE: There is only one SC for this topic and it is a broad introduction to the idea of the link between chamcal energy and electrical energy in REDOX reactions and a few of the key terms.

Electrochemistry and Electrochemical cells notes A simple two pager (reduce when photocopying) with an intro to electrochemical cells

Galvanic cells Unit 3 Topic 2 (Yr 11 Week 36,37 5 lessons)

Galvanic cells notes - covers the basic theory of this topic. Heavily edited from CK-12. You need to be able to do the questions on the third page.

Galvanic (Voltaic) cells - by Tyler again, 24 mins. Take your time, it is comprehensive, and simple.

Galvanic Cells - link to socratic site. Has text and a short 1.5 min video. Brief but also good.

Galvanic cell practice - edited from CK-12

Tutorial and simulation of Galvanic cell experiment - unbelieveable detail. On the left is a menu you can use to navigate. Work thru steps 1 and 2. Step 3 is the next topic.

Standard Electrode Potentials & Electrolytic cells Unit 3 Topic 2 (Yr 11 Week 38 3 lessons)

Electric Potential - notes. Edited from CK- 12. A brief introduction to the idea of electric potential

Electric Potential - practice. Again an edited version of CK-12 questions. You should have no problems with these, checking for understanding.

This page is under construction and will be for the rest of this year

Gases - Weeks 6 and 7 (4 lessons)

Success Criteria and Learning Goals

Measurement uncertainty and Error - Weeks 7, 8, and 9 (6 lessons)

Success Criteria and Learning Goals

Aqueous Solutions and Molarity - Weeks 9 and 10 (4 lessons)

Success Criteria and Learning Goals


Unit 4 Learning Goals and Success Criteria

8. Introduction to Bonding - Week 11 (3 lessons)

LG 1:Students can write and describe the exchange of electrons in compounds formed from ions (ionic compounds)

Collaborative groups (CCTS), teacher led Direct Instruction - The key question in this LG is "Why do elements react the way that they do?". But to answer this students must first understand... what does "react" mean in chamistry? Works in small groups on this latter question. When the class has a satisfactory answer, try the first "key" question, again in groups. Teacher to make notes on electron exchange and electron sharing (via electron configeration and electronegativity, ion formation, electrostatic attraction) from class discussion. I think it is a good idae to introduce electron exchange (ionic) versus electron sharing (metallic and covalent) The videos below are good for students who want to prepare early, or struggle with the ideas.

Introduction to ionic bonding - creating ions and electron transfer. Part of a very old video series and not one I own, so this is breaking copyright. However I can no longer source this video commercially and despite low resolution it is excellent.

Hiw ionic lattices form. Part of a very old video series and not one I own, so this is breaking copyright. However I can no longer source this video commercially and despite low resolution it is excellent.

Valence electrons and the periodic table - Tyler DeWitt (Simple,Excellent)

Why atoms lose or gain electrons - actually called "octet rule and valence charges" - it claims to be clear and simple and it actually is

Writing chemical (ionic) formulas Tyler Dwitt - good simple introduction

Checking For Understanding - The next resource is a good checking for understanding worksheet. It is adapted from an exam question released years ago in a C2C exam.

The periodic table on the planet MuAran If you can do this you know all you need to know about electron configeration, electron exchange, ions and ionic formula.

Worksheet Comparing Ionic and Covalent - a one pager, nice simple check for understanding

LG 2: Students can draw Lewis diagrams of simple ionic and covalent formula

Direct Instruction - Direct instruction on Lewis diagrams is important here, covering both ionic and covalent. Most Lewis diagram worksheets will cover only covalent molecules. Model drawing valence shells, electron counting, electron exchange (ionic), and electron sharing (covalent)

Excellent -Lewis diagrams - an ACS Chemistry page. Written from a teachers point of view. Has great Video, recommend you Direct Instruction first, show video after or as you teach examples. Has a student activity sheet (right menu, quite long for about 9 Qs), and answers

Lewis diagrams for covalent molecules - crashcourse, great inro and mentions the rules for drawing lewis diagrams, simple molecules only. Hint play at 0.8 speed.

Lewis diagrams for covalent molecules - Sciencepost, very useful tutorial, gos thru some simple and then some more complex lewis structures. A good follow up to the crashcourse video.

CFU - link below has 4 q's which quickly escalate in difficulty

Online drawing lewis structures for molecules - great simple online CFU and problem solving

LG 3: Students can explain that basic differences in the physical properties of Ionic and Covalent substances using basic description of lattice and molecular structure

NOTE: LG 3 leads direct to LG1 in the next section - in LG 3 "basic" relates most likely to the fact that chemical bonds hold ionic lattices together, but physical forces hols covalent molecules together. Use this to explain high MPt versus low MPt

Brief notes on Ionic Bonding Good to have in front of you for this lesson or use as study notes

Covalent Molecular Bonding brief notes - need only page 1 notes (ignore the table of molecule structures)for this LG

Properties of ionic bonding - not professionally produced but well explained

MC quiz on Ionic Bonding

Quiz (easy) on Covalent Molecular Bonding

9. Bonding and properties - Week 12 (3 lessons)

LG 1: Students can describe and identify the type of bonding present in simple ionic, metallic, and covalent substances.

I use Direct Instruction a lot here as I find this topic is mainly memory work for students - so study notes and remembering are key. They do need to understand the bonding models in order to use them to explain, but any exam question on this will require students to remember the key points of a bonding model in order to explain a property. CCTS will involve interpreting data in order to identify the bonding type, but from there on its memory work.

Brief notes on Ionic Bonding Good to have in front of you for this lesson or use as study notes

GCSE Science Chemistry Properties of ionic compounds - not exciting but very on point. Exactly what you need to know and understand and no more.

Metallic bonding Mexus Education - an oldie but a goodie.

Brief notes on Metallic Bonding

Quiz on Metallic Bonding

Practice short answer questions must do practice for the exam

Covalent Molecular Bonding brief notes - need only page 1 notes (ignore the table of molecule structures)for this LG

Simple QUIZ Chemical Bonding Good to do once an introduction of the three bonding models is done

Chemical Bonding Questions - great range of multiple choice and short answer questions. Good homework sheet

Properties of ionic and Covalent Online quiz - Doc brown site - questions may not load in all browsers (chrome works,IE not) - good simple revision for properties and bonding

10. Intermolecular forces - Week 13 and 14 (6 lessons)

LG 1*: Students can explain the relative physical properties of covalent molecular compounds using theories of intermolecular forces.

This is a complex topic, but not simple CCTS, more like a process type problem solving CCTS. I teach this as a combination of process (steps to follow) and logic application with lots of examples. Constant feedback to students is essential, along with Practicing and Deepening. I use lots of impromtu CFU followed by Practicing and Deepening The idea of a Flipped classroom is very useful for this topic.

VSEPR Theory.

Covalent Molecular Bonding brief notes - need only page 2 notes for this LG

Worksheet VSEPR theory - a "how to" guide. 3 pages, notes, guided practice. My version of how to do this. Check the notes on the front page.

VSEPR Theory - Science post, very methodical and clear but more an "explanation of" rather than a "how to" video.

VSEPR Theory - Tyler DeWitt, more of a "how to" video, not the same but similar method to mine.

Practice in VSEPR Theory - Tyler DeWitt

Madatory Practical - practice VSEPR theory using 3D model kits


I use this video as a basis to make notes. Quite thorough. This is a complex topic and builds upon VSEPR Theory.

Polarity in covalent molecules - Sciencepost, very methodical and clear. 15 mins long.

Intermolecular forces

My prefferred technique here is Direct Instruction. I use the flowchart to proceduralise (am I making up words here?) this topic. The video is good preview material or for additional support for students. One document has 6 pages of mainly MC questions, where you will find some Qs to use for CFU and Practice and Deepening.

Intermolecular forces notes - good basics. Work for your study notes is highlighted.

Intermolecular forces flowchart - This is an excellent tool for predicting the melting and boiling points of compounds. It may also help you organise you thoughts on the 3 types of Intermolecular bonding

Intermolecular forces - by Dr Paul McCord. Good coverage and very clear

Questions (tradional exam style)on covalent molecular bonding 6 pages of questions

11. Chromatograpy techniques - Week 15 (3 lessons)

The success criteria in the TLAP does not indicate theoretical depth here, so I am going to teach the theory of chromatography using the partition explaination. This is the explanation used in the YouTube clip below (without the big words!). Key terms - stationary phase, mobile phase, Retardation factor, polarity, adsoption, desorption, eluent, retention time.

How TLC Chromatography works - a vtchemist video. Short and sweet on partition chromatography, uses no terminology.

Chromatography in brief - very brief notes, quite hard for studnets to interpret, but good teaching notes. Has a good brief summary of each type of chromatography.

Chromatography quiz - Click the "review questions" in the left hand menu. 15 questions, quite hard.

STUDENT EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION: Week 16 to 19 (2 lsns per week, 8 lsns)

Student Investigation task sheet

Student Investigation Example - this is both an exemplar and a learning task. Student have to grade the exemplar (it is not neccesarily an A standard) using the criteria of the ISMG on the back page. The individual criteria have been split up and distributed at the relevant part of the report so it should be easier for students. More importantly, after the students try to mark the report it should be very clear to them how obvious they have to be meetng the criteria when they write their own report

Maximise your grade - very valuable resource, use in conjunction with the example report above. This should be beside you as you write your report.

Want a checklist to see if your draft has everything, click here - 3 pages long and organised by marking criteria

Want to know what your teachers mean by all the fancy words, click here. - This doc is not finished (two of the three main criteria covered only). Has a list of common language interpretation of what the descrimators mean. For example, want to know the difference between a "considered" rationale and a "reasonable" rationale, download and be enlightened.

12. Analytical techniques - Week 16/17/18/19 (4 lessons, 1 per week)

13. Compounds and Mixtures - Week 20 (3 lessons)


14. EXOTHERMIC and ENDOTHERMIC reactions - Week 21 (3 lessons)

LG and SC

LG 1:Students understand that thermochemical equations are identified as exothermic or endothermic and are able to explain and/or calculate enthalpy changes from a variety of methods used. (using average bond enthalpies ,using specific heat capacities and using data from thermochemical equations)

This section will be split into 3 distinct lessons. Furstly an introduction to enthalpy, lots of definitions, diagrams, understanding. Secondly will be calculating Change in Enthaply using Bond enthalpies and calorimetry. Third will be a mandatory calorimetry experiment.

Resources for the first lesson - may do the notes and go straight to calculating Change in Enthalpy using bond enthalpy

*Notes for the first lesson - Need only the first 3 pages. We will do some highlighting and discussing, and work through the questions. Not covered is SC 76 so we need to add these.

Enthalpy - by crashcourse chemistry. Good Background and overview. Watch but don't take notes

*Worksheet on Enthalpy and Stoichiometry - nice simple questions, good intro. Adapted from

Resources for the second lesson

Calculating Enthalpy change using Bond Enthalpies - fousses on "how" to do the calculation, not the "why" but quite clear and methodical. I recommend seperating the reactant calculation to the left of the page and the products to the right for more structure to your answer.

Calculating Change in Enthalpy for Bond Enthalpies - a one pager edited and stolen from Mr Kent's Chem page here. Practice only simple ones of these.

*Worksheet on Bond energies - good place to start. Has only one combustion Q though, which are the focus for this unit.

Me teaching Calorimetry - Experimental calculations of change in Enthalpy for reactions

Calorimetry Worksheet - looks very messy as it has the answers with it.

I recommend doing some of the Fuel calorimetry questions from the two sheets in Section 15 below

Resources for the third lesson

Classic Zinc in Copper Sulphate - seem well set out, I like the graph extrapolation, nice touch.

Calorimetry experiment simulation - probably best to start here, as we can do a "real" fuel experiment in next section (FUELS). Use to gather data, and do calculations.

REVISION - Huge worksheet - range of questions, do not do them all, ask your teacher for some on topic one's

Worksheet on range of Questions - more questions here than you need. We will do only some in class.

15. FUELS - Week 22 (3 lessons)

LG and SC

These SC and LG are not Knowledge based and this topic is very much research based, bring your laptop. There are a couple of worksheets with calorimetry questions below, but the bulk of these lesson will be developing research questions about fuels and finding data to answer them.

*Calorimetry of Fuels worksheet - only 3 questions, but with answers. original is not mine.

Fuels and Calorimetry - variations in fuel calorimetry questions. Bit harder than simple application of process. Also with answers. Original is not mine.

STUDENT RESEARCH INVESTIGATION: weeks 3 - 6 (2 lsns per week, 8 lessons)

Below is the task sheet. By far the hardest part of this research investigation will be finding data to develop a research question. Once you have done this and it is okayed by your teacher, the two supporting documents should make it easier to write your report.

Research investigation TASK SHEET

The next two documents are to support you writing the report for your investigation.

How to write your research Investigation report - this is a key document. It contains recommended heading and sections (subheadings) for your report. Each subheading is explained in terms of what you need to write aboute and the criteria which will be used to evaluate your writing. This doc and the next one work together.

The Instrument Specific Marking Guide EXPLAINED - useful document as it uses some common and simple language to explain each of the criteria in terms of what your teachers are looking for.

16. Rates of Reaction - Week 23 -27 (7 lessons of 15)

LG and SC

This is mainly a theory section with few calculations. The powerpoint below (first 14 slides only) and the Chemguide site link are all you will need for this unit, except for the experiments.

Reaction rates PwrPt (need only 14 slides, not all) - Will give you a handout of slides 3 to 14. This is 13 year old powerpoint so be nice! This resource covers the theory component of the course and I will use it in class. We will NOT cover the reaction mechanisms part, so you need only the first 14 slides.

Reaction Rate Theory - Chemguide site and excellent! It is broken up into different topics so is bitesize and easily navigated.

Exp - Effect of temp on rate - We will do a version of this one in class (and vary concentration as well). This is a Royal Society of Chemistry site, experiment sheet (scroll down) for measuring the effect of temp on a reaction

Exp - measuring rate of reaction - Royal Society of Chemistry site, experiment sheet (scroll down) for measuring the rate of a magnesium and acid reaction.

17. Reactions of Acids/Bases and pH - Week 28 and 29 (6 lessons)

LG and SC

Notes for Reactions of Acids - an edit from a site called Naturez-Vous. Will go through these notes for knowledge and understanding work.

pH basics - notes and calculations on the basics of pH

18. Solubility and Identifying ions in solution - Week 30 (3 lessons)

LG and SC

Notes on Solubilty

Solubility worksheet - some really good simple and some not simple practice. Edited this sheet from somewhere, can't remember where.


The rest of this page is currently under construction. The resources on this page from this point forward are suited to an older QCAA course. The page will be updated at the beginning of each term in 2019.

Worksheet on classifying matter - very simple classification of substances according to some of the vocabulary students need to develop in this section.

Text on Acids and Bases - Chemlibre text. Comprehensive for notes


GOAL: Describe a chemical reaction in terms of moles of reactant or product

The following three vids all address the mole. find one which makes sense to you. The mole is not a concept we actually assess you on, but is a vital concept for you to understand for the rest of the unit.

The mole - by Brainstorm

The mole and Molar mass - by JFR Science - very good

The mole - a series of videos - by Tyler DeWitt. A collection of 11 videos (vids 1,2,5,6 and 8 are most useful)

Simple mass, concentration, gas volume (STP) calculations - not involving a reaction (no balanced equation needed)

Calculation flowchart for basic stoichiometric Q's - my version of a maths map for beginning Chemists. Very customisable so change as you like. Updated copies with more complicated calculations appear in later units.

Stoichiometry (9mins) - by JFR Science - excellent and simple. At 3:45 the basic 3 step outline of stoichiometry is shown - very very important.

Also Stoichiometry (15 mins) - Mad Scientist - slower, more detailed and also excellent and simple

Stoichiometry - how to do - My own video (33 mins). First video of mine (a few things to improve) - shows my method for doing these Qs. Covers all the basic types of Stoichiometry questions

Complex question sheet - range of complex but closed questions on stoichiometry

Percentage Composition questions - these are a stand alone type of question, a different style to the others

Answers to revision sheet

Answers to VIP revision sheet - pdf

TERM 3: Burn Baby Burn

This unit introduces the nomenclature and properties of organic chemistry – primarily alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and alcohols. Fermentation and distillation reactions will be performed in the laboratory. The concepts of enthalpy and intropy are introduced and students will qualitatively and quantitatively assess the suitability of ethanol and petrol as fuel sources.

Assessment: Response to Stimulus (exam conditions)

Term planner

IUPAC Nomenclature - for Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Alcohols, and Halogenated compounds.

Intro to Enthalpy and Stoichiometry


Additional resources:

Homework Sheet two - covers Charles's Law and the Combined Gas Law

Answers to Homework Sheet 2

Answers to Homework Sheet 3

Homework Sheet Four - revision for the work so far

Answers to Homework Sheet 4

Homework Sheet Five - Dalton's Law and Graham's Law

Answers to Homework Sheet 5

Homework Sheet Six - Real Gases

Questions on Boyle's Law and Charles's Law - a page of questions on each law. Good practice.

Notes on Boyle's Law - good source of notes

Iowa State Uni - java showing collection of data and graphing of Boyle's law

Boyle's Law - Tyler DeWitt

Notes on Charles's Law - good source of notes

Iowa State Uni - java showing collection of data and graphing of Charles's law

Charles's Law - Tyler DeWitt

Combined Gas Law Law - Tyler DeWitt

Notes and Questions on the combined gas law - worksheet, pdf, pretty straightforward

Which gas equation do I use? - Tyler DeWitt, reduce the confusion!

IDEAL GAS Equation - Crash Course Chemistry, good discussion of all gas laws

IDEAL GAS Law Practice Questions - Tyler DeWitt

Worksheet on Ideal Gas Law - has worked answers

Worksheet on the Gas Laws so far Good basic coverage of the Laws up to the Ideal Gas equation. No real complex questions. Should be done as early revision

PARTIAL PRESSURE - Crash Course Chemistry, good example - boy, he can talk!

Worksheet on Partial Pressures - has worked answers

Root Mean Squared Velocity of a gas - thatchemguy. Technically not part of our course but an elegant example of using units to understand formulas

Applying Graham's law - Brightstorm. Nice simple explanation of using Graham's law to calculate Molar Mass of a gas

Graham's law - Crash Course. A lot of background in 11 minutes, gives a good overview and tackles graham's law and diffusion at the end.

CHEM GUIDE - Real vs Ideal gases - lots of detail but a very good coverage of real gases

Real versus ideal gases - IsaacsTEACH. Explains differences between ideal and real gases


Revision Summary and Questions - downloadable pdf. Good for the basic maths component of the course. Most questions are C and B level

Revision Questions scan - pdf, good range of mathematical qs, especially q's 60 and 61 which are very good A level practice. Bit awkward looking as it is a cut and paste and scanned in.

Worked solutions to Q60 and Q61 - pdf, several ways to do these questions - these solutions show one way.

High level Revision Questions - key questions are 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. and yes these are all A level questions, some of which have been on past exams.

Review of Yr 10 CHEMISTRY - skills recap

Periodic Table and Mendeleev Crash Course

Elements and reactivity - 3 page worksheet covering key ideas in this section

Formula writing practice

Flowchart for naming Chemical compounds This is a web based link from North Thurston Public School. If you search for the powerpoint it will download directly.

Balancing Equation - "how to" and Q sheets A comprehensive text and video guide to balancing chem eqns. Scroll down to the bottom of this page and there are several links to worksheets with practice questions and answers

QUIZ on Balancing Equations 10 question multiple choice quiz.

Unknown White Powder Experiment - experimental procedure, practice for the assessment piece.

Electronic configeration (review) - worksheet: complete the electronic comfigeration of the first 20 elements

Bohr model of the atom - an older video, but a very comprehensive explaination of a complex idea

How Atoms bond: Ionic bonding An NBC/NSF video but presented at the Science 360 Video site (loads faster at this site) - Really good simple introduction

Quantum Mechanical view of the Atom - Excellent

The following three videos would be good if you miss class or need to reinforce the notes we cover in class

Enthalpy and Change in Enthalpy - by Brightstorm - copy for notes on Enthalpy

Thermochemical Equations - by Brightstorm - copy for notes on Thermochemical equations

Energy diagrams - by Brightstorm - Copy. After the video practice explaining the energy diagram to the person behind you. Together figure out a description and write this down as notes beside the diagram

Reaction of acids and Carbonates - a free science lesson video

Reaction of acids and Metals - a free science lesson video

Reaction of acids and Bases - Not actually called this, need only the first 3/4s of the video. A free science lesson video

Gary Turner Science

QLD Alan Druery Excellence in Teaching Award (QCT)
QLD Secondary Teacher of the year Award (AISTL)
QLD Centenary of Federation Teaching Award (RACI)
Peter Doherty Excellence in Science Teaching Award
Prime Minister Commendation for Science Education Award